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An article is a generic term for a modelling item. Common article types might include "personnel", "fixed assets", "projects", "customers", "contracts", "subscriptions". Each "article" can store any number of attributes against it which can be used in reports and models. Articles are used in the xpna.ARTICLE function.

Context Aware

This refers to the fact that as your selection changes in Excel, xpna offers actions that are application to the context of that selection, i.e. if you have an empty cell selected versus your selection being a cell inside an Excel table, you will be shown different actions to perform.

Data source

Data sources are used in xpna to group types of transactions together. For actuals, data sources are typically related to the subledger or process which created the transactions (general journals, accounts receivable, credit note etc). For planning scenarios data sources are typically related to the model which created them (personnel, allocations, CAPEX, direct entry etc). Each data source is a member within the "Data sources" dimension and can be used in reports like any other member.


A dimension is a category that helps to organize and classify information. It represents a way to group related data points, making it easier to understand and analyze large amounts of data. Dimensions allow users to explore complex information by examining connections and trends between various categories. This organisation method helps people discover valuable insights and make informed decisions. xpna ships with a standard set of dimensions, but these can be added to as required. Xero users may choose to add a dimension for each of the tracking categories in Xero. Dimensions are used in the xpna.MEMBER function.

Entity cards

xpna uses Excel's entity data types to store and display information about items such as articles, members, scenarios, periods, measures etc. Cells which contain an entity data types are identified by an in-cell icon. Clicking on this icon will display an entity card with additional information about the selected item. See referencing data types for information about how to utilise attributes within entity data types.


A hierarchy is a way of organizing items or elements in a structured manner, where some items are ranked above others based on their importance or relationship. In data organisation, hierarchies help to group and categorize information, making it easier to understand and analyze. By displaying connections between different levels, hierarchies allow users to explore patterns and trends, discover insights, and make informed decisions. Hierarchies can be simple, with only a few levels (such as periods rolling up to fiscal years), or complex, with many levels (such as the chart of accounts). xpna provides a hierarchy maintenance tool which allows users to modify hierarchies to suit their business model or organisational structure. Hierarchies are used in the xpna.MEMBER function to allow users to drill down to higher levels of detail.


A member is a unique element within a data structure that represents a specific data point. These members are organized in a hierarchical manner, providing a framework for analyzing large amounts of data. They help users understand relationships and trends by allowing them to examine and combine data across different categories. This makes it easier for people to explore complex information and discover useful insights, which can aid in making decisions. Members cen be retrieved with the xpna.MEMBER function, and are used as inputs for the xpna.DATA functions.


Unique identifier for a member or datapoint. UIDs are used to identify members and datapoints in the database. They are used in the xpna.MEMBER and xpna.DATA functions.


an xpna workspace is a collection of data and metadata. Individual businesses will usually have a single workspace for all of their data containing information from multiple sources allowing for consolidated reporting. Accounting practices, bookkeepers and fractional CFOs will usually have a separate workspace for each of their clients, keeping the data and metadata separate. To learn more about workspaces, see the workspaces help page.